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Updating military physical profiles

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The ultimate aim of the closed fuel cycle is to eliminate the production of radioactive waste from power generation.

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Russia's first two commercial-scale nuclear power plants started up in 1963-64, then in 1971-73 the first of today's production models were commissioned.Gazprom gas exports to western Europe increased by 20% over 2010 to 2016, and in 2015 were 158.6 billion cubic metres.Russia is one of the few countries without a populist energy policy favouring wind and solar generation; the priority is unashamedly nuclear.It's necessary to make this leadership absolute and to deprive our competitors of their hopes of overcoming the gap in the technological race." Apart from adding capacity, utilisation of existing plants has improved markedly since 2000.In the 1990s capacity factors averaged around 60%, but they have steadily improved since and in 2010, 20 were above 81%.First, demand rose strongly to 2010 after more than a decade of stagnation; secondly some 50 GWe of generating plant (more than a quarter of it) in the European part of Russia is approcahing the end of its design life; and thirdly Gazprom cut back on the very high level of natural gas supplies for electricity generation because it can make about five times as much money by exporting the gas to the west (over 30% of EU gas comes from Russia).

In 2012 Gazprom exports were expected to reach $84.5 billion, $61 billion of this to Europe.

Early in 2016 Rosatom said that Russia’s GDP gained three roubles for every one rouble invested in building nuclear power plants domestically, as well as enhanced “socio-economic development of the country as a whole.” However, early in 2017 the CEO of Rosatom said that the government would end state support for the construction of new nuclear units in 2020, and so Rosatom must learn to earn money on its own, primarily via commercial nuclear energy projects in the international market.

He said that Rosatom had come from being a consortium of unprofitable, separately-run businesses a decade ago to a vertically-integrated state corporation with improved strategies and financial performance, thanks in part to a "large-scale" program of state funding. we must learn how to earn money independently,” especially in the world market.

Economic reforms following the collapse of the Soviet Union meant an acute shortage of funds for nuclear developments, and a number of projects were stalled.

But by the late 1990s exports of reactors to Iran, China and India were negotiated and Russia's stalled domestic construction program was revived as far as funds allowed.

Some non-nuclear generators have been privatised, OGK-4 (E. Net exports were 12 TWh and final consumption was 726 TWh (after transmission losses of 107 TWh and own use/energy sector use of 223 TWh).